Friday, April 11, 2014

monosyllabic term for cadmium possible in Icelandic: tink

Cadmium is the homolog of zinc (Icelandic: sink) two places to the left of "tin": sink + tin = TINK

Sunday, March 16, 2014

thallium - þál

The shortest possible word for thallium is þál (the initial of thallium with "-ál" added, in reference of the fact that thallium is a member of the Aluminium group of metals.

Update on thorium

Apart from Þórefni, there's another possibility for this element, which was named after the Scandinavian god of thunder by Berzelius who discovered thorium in a mineral from the Norwegian Island løvøy (leaf-Island, islandic Laufey)


No postplumbic element exect for thorium can be linked up with Scandinavia.  For that reason I want to call it "norðblý" (the norwegian lead).


So we have two possibilities now: þórefni and norðblý

Monday, February 25, 2013

Update on beryllium

1) einsætlingsefni, einsætla (Beryllium is the "lightest element having but one isotope" or the "dwarf of the monoisotopic elements": http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoisotopic_element
It is possible to found a term upon the icelandic samsæta (isotope). The first step is coining an equivalent of the adjective "monoisotopic", which denotes elements that have but one stable isotope, like beryllium. The Orðabanki íslenskrar málstöðvar doesn't contain an equivalent for the term "monoisotopic element" yet, and my first guess was something like "einsamsætu-". But this might well be reduced to simply einsætu-, judging from the shortening of "monoisotopic" into the more flexible term monotopic in some sources: http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/@api/deki/pages/7959/pdf
This convinces me of the accuracy of a construction like einsæta, einsætu-. The term monoisotope is used to designate the isotope of a monoisotopic element (google "is a monoisotope"(between brackets!)). This Pdf-file even contains the word monotope:
http://homepages.rpi.edu/~danony/Papers/Neutron%20Cap%20and%20Trans%20of%20Nb.pdf
"Since natural niobium is a monotope, all of the niobium was 93-Nb".

The literal translation of this "monotope" is einsæta: "Málmynja (Mn), feðginasilfur (Nb), illmálmungur (As), lýsill (P), þengi (I), dyrgi (Co) og lútargull (Cs) eru einsætur."

Beryllium is the "hermit of the spallation triad" (einsetuefni í splundrunarþrennd)", because the other two, lithium and boron, have more than 1 isotope. The "spallation triad" or the "rare lights", as they were called on this webpage http://168.144.87.33/~conworld/cwbb/viewtopic.php?t=942&sid=3129e708fe8d7c361795a74d814ee0e1 , are the three dwarf elements (two metals and a metalloid), that are formed in an extrastellar spallation process because their nuclei can't survive the temperature generated in the core of stars,

One could the diminutive suffix -la (as in pípla) and form einsætla, einsætlingsefni (the "little monotope" or the "dwarf-monotope" or einsetluefni, the "dwarf-hermit of the periodic system"). The name for the element itself can be formed on addition of "málmur" (metal)), which gives the construction: einsætlingsmálmur or einsetlumálmur, but reduced forms einsætlingur or einsætla, might already suffice.

A friend of mine asked me why I didn't use "einsetu- (hermit) constructions", because monoisotopal elements could indeed as well be designated as "hermit elements" (einsetuefni). Add to this the fact the beryllium MONOtope was into the bargain created occasionly in the cold, void extrastellar space, completely in opposite to the other elements formed together in a stellar fusion process or neutron absorption in supernova events and he "hermit-idea" becomes a very interesting avenue of thought. But for the time being I'm not inclined to loose the connection with "-sæta" in samsæta, so I stick with einsætlingsefni instead of einsetlumálmur for the time being.

The interesting thing here is that a whole element can be terminologically isolated merely by building further upon the term samsæta (isotope): einsæta (monoisotope), einsætla, einsætlingur (most logically designates the smallest monoisotope, which is beryllium-9) and finally einsætlingsefni (beryllium).


The line of thought is as follows: samsæta (isotope) - einsæta (monoisotope, monotope or "hermit element" if you like) - einsætlingur ("small monotope" which most appropraitely would designate Beryllium-9, the smallest monotope on the periodic system) - einsætlingsefni (dwarf of the monotopic elements) or einsetlumálmur (the "little hermit" of the periodic system, the "little hermit metal".)
2) harðmelmlingur ("hard dwarf metal"): Lithium and beryllium are the lightest metallic elements so melmlingur actually could, apart from its use on its own to designate lithium, be used as a positioning marker for the two lightest metallic elements on the periodic system: lithium and beryllium: melmlingur on itself for lithium and harðmelmingur for beryllium. The addition of harður distinguishes beryllium, a hard metal from the very weak alkaline metal lithium.

3) njálfur (nonalphium, based upon the alternative name for He-3, trialphium, (nine + alfa (particle) and then shaped as much as possible after the word "málmur", Personally, I find trialphium an all but perfect piece of terminology as it could as well be serve as a designation of carbon-12, which is formed in the so-called "triple-alpha-process" (þrjálfun), where He-4 nuclei are fused to carbon-12. But since the term exists, "trialphium" could be used as a kind of "terminological scaffold", if we may call it so, to construct the term "nonalphium", the nucleus consisting of two alpha-particles and one extra nucleus, which is Be-9. A construction with -alfa is relevant for beryllium because it alludes to the fact that fusing two alpha particles doesn't work, it directly decays into two alpha-particles again, it requires an extra nucleon to get to the stable monoisotopic and primordial nuclide Be-9.

4) smál: (smá + ál): Refers to beryllium's nature of being a kind of "light version" of aluminium, with whom it constitutes the metallic part in beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6). Beryllium is chemically more similar to aluminium than its close neighbors in the periodic table due to having a similar charge-to-radius ratio. The word smál also rhymes on stál (steel), which alludes to its "steel-gray" color and the fact it's being almost as hard as steel (beryllium scores 5.5 on Mohs scale, and steel 6). The neologism also alliterates also with smaragður (emerald), the green beryl-variety in which the French chemist François-Nicolas Vauquelin discovered the element in 1798.

5) regði (i-shift of -ragður, the latter part of "smaragður" (emerald), the gem in which the element was discovered by the Frenchman Nicholas-Louis Vauquelin (Nikulás Lúðvík Valkalín). see http://lotukerfi.blogspot.be/2012/06/beryllium-problem-solved.html
I know it is a bold and risky construction but there are other examples like tálknamandra for the axolotl salamander. In this particular case "mandra" was cut from "salamandra" to serve as a second element. There are many examples of this kind of word-lenght reduction in Icelandic neologistic work. I did the same with smaragður (emerald), because the element was first discovered in this very variety of beryl. Of course, I went somewhat further by additionally i-shifting the left-over ragður to regði in order to obtain an i-shifted element name like ildi (from eldur), vetni (from vatn) and lyfti (from loft, once proposed for nitrogen). Regði from smaragður, a bold construction indeed, but still, why not? After all, beryllium (regði) is a part of the aluminium-berillium silicate (álregðiskíslungur) beryl Be3Al2(SiO3)6 . It looks completely Icelandic and there are no connotations with any other word.

6) valkalín (Vauquelium): The discoverer of berylium was the French pharmacist and chemist Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin, whose surname is of Germanic origin and transformable into Icelandic. The addition -ál refers to its being more chemically similar to aluminium than its close neighbours on the periodic table due to having a similar charge-to-radius ratio.
Porté en Normandie (76, 14), c'est un nom de personne d'origine germanique, Walkelin, rattaché par M.T. Morlet au moyen-haut-allemand walkan (= fouler). see http://jeantosti.com/noms/v2.htm
It's a masculine name on -ín, comparable to Hagalín, Espólín, Frakklín.
The funny thing about this word is that the Icelandicized form of the French name contains "alkalí" that is found in jarðalkalímálmur, while the so-called "diagonal relationship" with aluminum is expressed by the latter element -ál.
Lithium and beryllium, the first elements of Group 1 and Group 2 respectively exhibit some properties which are different from those of the other members of the respective group. In these anomalous properties they resemble the second element of the following group. Thus, lithium shows similarities to magnesium and beryllium to aluminium in many of their properties. This type of diagonal similarity is commonly referred to as diagonal relationship in the periodic table.
see http://textbook.s-anand.net/ncert/class-11/chemistry/9-the-s-block-elements

7) lotungsstál (the "steel" (hard metal) on a small period (lotungur, diminutive of lota), which is beryllium. Lithium is a weak metal, while the rest of the elements on the second period are mettaloid, non-metallic or noble gas)

Monday, February 11, 2013

lyftlingur (the baby-gas, hydrogen), hjályftlingur (helium)

An interesting avenue of thought is naming the first two elements, the lightest gases hydrogen and helium lyftlingar (gaskins), which is a diminutive of loft (air, gas) by adding the suffix -lingur.  The singular form lyflingur could be synonymous to hydrogen and the compound hjályftlingur (hjá- additional + lyftlingur (baby-gas)) could be used of helium. I founded this idea upon melmlingur (diminutive of málmur, metal), which I used to designate the two lightest metals lithium (melmlingur) and berylium (þolmelmlingur).  But there is a difference though: lithium and beryllium are dwarfs among the metallic elements not only with respect to density, atomic weight and radius, but also abundance, which is completely the other way round in the case of the two primordial gases.  Still lyftlingur and hjályftlingur could be a valid designation for the two lightest gases in the universe.

Wednesday, January 16, 2013

Rare-earth elements (huliðsmálmar, duljörðungar, valefni) (updated)

In Norway, the former homeland of the first Icelanders, some of the oldest rocks on the planet are found. The mineralogical diversity of the Scandinavian mainland in general is mind-boggling, rivaling the Uralic region.  Unfortunately, during the last few centuries, Norwegian mineralogists haven't been taking the trouble to coin native Norwegian names for these stones, names, that could easily be derived from the names of their type-locality, a term used by minearlogists to designate the place where a particular mineral was first found. No, as was the custom those days, names of minerals were founded upon Greek or Latin roots.
In the case of the rare-earth elements, most of these were isolated from minerals originating from the Scandinavian mainland, which means that if native names for the rare-earth elements would be possible, the only languages in which this could be accomplished would turn out to be the Scandinavian languages. And because almost all of the names of the type-localities of rare-earth minerals have Old Icelandic equivalents, Icelandic names for the rare-earth elements can be constructed.

List of possible Icelandic names of rare-earth minerals

Euxenite (Y): Jölmstarsteinn (The type-locality of Euxenite is the Norwegian place Jølster (see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euxenite (Read under occurence). The original and Icelandic form of the place-name is Jölmstur (Jölmstar- in compounds).
Ytterbite: Ytribæjargrýti (Ytterby means "outer village" and translates as "Ytribær" in Icelandic (ytribæjar- in compounds)
Kænosite (Y): Íglatjarnarsteinn, Ígultirni. Type locality is Igletjerne (Icel. Ígultjörn, Ígultjarnar-)(http://www.mindat.org/typelocs-3100.html
Polycrase: Rasvogsberg, rásvægi: Type locality: Rasvåg (Icelandic Rasvogur)
Aeschynite: Urðarstaðaberg, urðstæði; type-locality: Urstad ( = Urðarstaðir, see http://www.nb.no/utlevering/contentview.jsf;jsessionid=B6E3164699A9176F3926CB26FCB11882.sok2#&struct=DIVP163
Bastnesite: Bestnesgrýti
Cerite: Korndísarberg (The element cerium is named after the at the time newly discovered asteroid Ceres, which was named after the Godess of agriculture Ceres, whose name is the etymological root of "cereal". As for me, Korndís is an appropriate designation of the Godess and can be used uncompounded as a name for the asteroid as well. There's no need for a genitive compound with "-stirni".)
Monazite: stakhallur, eingrýti (The mineral was named from the Greek monazeis - "to be alone" in allusion to its isolated crystals and their rarity when first found. It is more convenient to translate the name of the mineral as stakhallur instead of the obvious einhallur because adoption of the latter can lead to connotations with the adjective einhallur, which means "monoclinic", also a mineralogical term. (Orðabanki íslenskrar málstöðvar). When prefering a compound with ein- it is better to use -grýti as the second element: eingrýti, which unfortunately produces three syllables where stakhallur becomes disyllabic in genitive compounds.)

An Icelandic version for the term "rare-earth element"

Despite their name, rare earth elements are relatively plentiful in the Earth's crust, with cerium being the 25th most abundant element at 68 parts per million (similar to copper). However, because of their geochemical properties, rare earth elements are typically dispersed and not often found in concentrated and economically exploitable forms. The few economically exploitable deposits are known as rare earth minerals. It was the very scarcity of these minerals (previously called "earths") that led to the term "rare earth".
The more appropriate term I have in mind is based upon the name of two of the rare-earth elements, namely lanthanum, which originates from the Greek λανθανω [lanthanō], "to lie hidden" and dysprosium, derived from the Greek dysprositos (δυσπρόσιτος), meaning "hard to get", another way to express the conceiled and unaccessible nature of the element.
Rather than founding a collective term for these elements upon the erroneous notion of their so-called rarity or "underabundance", it might be better to refer to their conceiledness and non-accessibility. This led to the following constructions:

Rare earth metals: huliðsmálmur (a pun on huliðshjálmr, a mythological helmet that made the one who bears it invisible), duljörðungar (dul- hidden + jörð (earth) + -ungar (suffix denoting the elements)), valefni, valmálmar (val- strange, foreign another way to express rarity (cfr. xenon, which is derived from Greek word for strange, because of its rarity. Strange things are rare, otherwise they weren't strange. The last element is -efni (substance))
Lanthanides: leyndarmálmar (the secret, concealed metals) or lotujarðmálmar (periodical earth-metals. Where other "earth metals" are not situated on a (horizontal) period), like the "earth alkaline metals, the elements of the aluminium group or the elements of group 3B (Scandium, Yttrium and Lanthanum), the lanthanides constitute a group of horizontally positioned elements.)



Rare earths are divided into two groups:
Yttrium-group: The elements associated with yttrium, which is named after the mineral Ytterbite, which is in its turn names after the village of Ytterby (Icel. Ytribær).  But historically, the second type-location is Hitterø in Norway judging from this passage in the book "Discovery of the elements" by Elvira Weeks:
G.Flink stated that gadolinite (ytterbite) played a greater role in the history of inorganic chemistry than many other minerals and that it is mainly found only at two Scandinavian locations, manely Ytterby near Vaxholm (Sweden) and Hitterø near Flekkefjord in Norway. Other Scandinavian localities for it are of little importance and in other countries it is found only as a rarity (Weeks, Elvira, Discovery of the elements, p. 698).
The website mindat.org (Mineral and Locality Database) mentions for Hitterø as the type-locality for some other not unimportant Yttrium-minerals like Aeschynite (Y), Polycrase (Y) and Xenotime (Y) http://www.mindat.org/loc-3100.html  as well as large crystals of Gadolinite (synonym of Ytterbite, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadolinite).

The Old Icelandic name for Hitterø is the singular feminine noun Hítra or the plural feminine Hítrar:
Hítr. kv., Hítrar kv.ft. fno. eyjar- og eyjanafn; sbr nno. Hidra, Hitra (Flekkefj., V.-Agðir; Nordfosen, S.-Þrændadal.). E.t.v. sk hít, af ie. *kei-d- 'skera, kljúfa' og merk. þá 'hin vogskorna eða þær fráskornu'. Vafasamt. (Íslensk Orðabók, Icelandic etymological dictionary)

The names Hítramálmur or the reduced form Hítri can easily serve for the element Yttrium and the derivation Hítrungar and the ending -hítri could be used in the terminological isolation of the so-called Yttroids, the heavier lanthanides that are associated with yttrium in nature (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The sound-similarity between Hítrar and Ytribæ is an additional bonus which almost seems too good to be true. 


Cerium-group: Elements that are found in nature associated with Cerium are: Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu and Gd.  Cerium was named after the at the time newly discovered asteroid Ceres, which was in its turn named after the Roman Godess of agriculture Ceres, whose name is also the etymological root of "cereal". As for me, Korndís is an appropriate designation of the Godess and can be used for the asteroid as well. There's no need to resort to a long genitive compound with "-stirni".  Members of the cerium-group of rare-earths could be called Korndísungar, but for the element cerium itself, I use þórtin, because it is the chemical homologue of Thorium, which I called þórblý (þór- + blý (lead) Cerium and its heavier brother thorium (þórblý), possesses the IV+ oxidation state, and in that case both resemble elements of the Titanium group and to a somewhat lesser extent, tin and lead.


1) The yttrium group or yttroids

1) The West Scandinavian, Norwegian solution: Most of the heavier lanthanides associated with Yttrium were named after the mineral Ytterbite, which can be called after the second type-location of Hitterø, Norway (see above).

For that reason, Yttrium could be called Hítramálmur or hítri instead of the ytribæjarsilfur, ytri or svíamálmur (the Swedish metal), and the heavier lanthanides hítrungar (-hítringur or hítri as a suffix to denote the different yttroids) instead of ytribæingar or svíamálmar.

1) Terbium: hítrungatin (because it has a IV+ oxidation state like an element in the titanium and the tin group, which is a property also exhibited by the second lanthanide Cerium.)
2) Dysprosium: faturhuliðsmálmur (fatur = frustration + huliðsmálmur. the element's name dysprosium was derived from a Greek meaning  "hard to get at", because it was difficult to isolate or torfenginmálmur)
3) Holmium: ? 
3) Erbium: rósahítri (Erbium is the only rare-earth with a pink oxide),
4) Thulium: tílismálmur, tílskmálmur (from Tíli, Thule, mentioned in the Flateyjarbók), nyrstingamálmur (metal of the northernmost, which were according to the ancients, the Thulians)
5) Ytterbium: hítrakelki: calcium of the "hitterø-elements.
"The +2 oxidation state reacts in some ways similarly to the alkaline earth metal compounds; for example, Ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) shows the same structure as calcium oxide (CaO)." (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ytterbium )
In its calcium-like divalent behaviour, ytterbium has an affinity for the bones, just like any other osteophilic earth-alkaline element. About 25% of the absorbed ytterbium is deposited in the liver and 65% in the bones (see http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5/scenes-e/elem/e07040.html )
6) Lutetium: þunghítrungur, lokahítri(ngur) (the heaviest of the Jølster-metals)

2) The East-Scandinavian solution:

terbium: ytribæjartin (ytritin), tribbi (yTRIBæjarefni, in the same way as terbium was coind: ytTERBy)
dysprosium: torfenginmálmur
holmium: hólmefni
erbium: rósaytribæingur (named after the typical pink oxide)
thullium: tílskmálmur (tílsk = thulian; this adjective compounded with málmur becomes monosyllabic, one syllable shorter than compounds with tílis-, like tílisefni)
ytterbium: tíliskelki (the calcium near thulium); ytribæjarmálmur
lutetium: þungytribæingur, lokaytribæingur

3) Other possibilities:

Dysprosium: dulhólmefni (because it was difficult to be seperated from holmium, with whom it is mostly closely associated in nature, hence the name dysposium (from the Greek word meaning "hard to get at")
Lutetium: lúteskmálmur, lúskmálmur (from lúteskur or lúskur, an adjective I derived from Lutetia), lokahuliðsmálmur, lokadulmálmur (final rare-earth), gallhuliðsmálmur, Valhuliðsmálmur (Gall- refers to Gaul, of which Lutetia was the capital), þunghuliðsmálmur (the heavy lanthanide))



2) The cerium group or ceroids (Korndísungar, léttleyndarmálmar)

1) Lanthanum:
1) leyndarmálmur (from the Greek "lanthanein", meaning to be hidden.)
2) eingrýtisál ("monazite's aluminium" (ál is used as a positioning marker for trivalent elements in group 3A and further down the road, even for elements in group 3B).  In monazite (= lonestone, from  Greek μοναζειν (to be solitary), in allusion to its isolated crystals, I called it eingrýti. Aluminium could serve as a role model for all trivalent elements of group 3a and 3b and lanthanum could be called "monazite's aluminium".

2) Cerium:
1) þórtin: The lighter homologue of thorium (þórblý). The term þórtin is an infrapolation of þorsblý.
2) korndísarmálmur, korndísartin: The element cerium is named after the at the time newly discovered asteroid Ceres, which was named after the Godess of agriculture Ceres, whose name is the etymological root of "cereal". As for me, Korndís is an appropriate designation of the Godess and can be used for the asteroid as well, without the need to resort to a genitive compound with "-stirni".


3) stakhallstin, eingrýtistin (The "tin" (tetravalent element) in monazite): The mineral was named from the Greek monazeis - "to be alone" in allusion to its isolated crystals and their rarity when first found. I translated the name as stakhallur or eingrýti instead of the obvious einhallur in order to avoid a connotation with the adjective einhallur, which means "monoclinic". (Orðabanki íslenskrar málstöðvar). The elements in monazite are predominantly Cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, thorium, phosphorus and oxygen. The only element that can be compared with "tin" or a 4A or 4B group element are cerium and thorium. Comparing an heavy element like thorium, situated 8 places above lead with "tin" is inappropriate, which leaves us with "tin". Cerium is "monazite's tin" (stakhallstin).
4) dulmelma (femininized form of dulmálmur, rare-earth): The only rare-earth element derived from a feminine name, Ceres, the name of an asteroid which was in its turn named after the godess of agriculture.)
5) aðaldulmálmur, dulmálmadrottning (the queen of the "concealed metals" (lanthanides), because Cerium comes from the name of the at the time newly discovered dwarf planet Ceres, which is a feminine name, no other rare earth element is called after a female being, directly or indirectly

3) praseodymium and neodymium: The name of the "earth" (mineral oxide) didymia  was derived from Greek "didymos", which means "twin". The Icelandic version could be tvíjörð. From this earth, the oxides of both elements praseodymium and neodymium were isolated (praseodymia (græntvíjörð, grænjörð) and neodymia (nýtvíjörð, nýjörð). Normally the name for both elements should be græntvíjörðungur and nýtvíjörðungur respectively.  But these are akward constructions and for that reason I made a terminological short-cut and called them grænjarðarmálmur and nýjarðarmálmur respectively.  The reduced terms nýjörð can used for neodymia and grænjörð for praseodymia (instead of nýtvíjörð and grænutvíjörð). 
An even shorter name than nýjarðarmálmur is nýdulmálmur (new "concealed-earth").  Neodymium is the only rare-earth with the neo- prefix, like neon (nýloft), so nýdulmálmur is transparent enough.  The earth neodymia could be generated from nýdulmálmur: nýduljörð (new "concealed earth")


4) promethium:
1) eldþjófsefni, eldþýfi:
The ancients believed that the name Prometheus derived from the Greek pro (before) + manthano (learn) and the agent suffix -eus, thus meaning "Forethinker". Plato contrasts Prometheus with his dull-witted brother Epimetheus, "Afterthinker". Writing in late antiquity, the Latin commentator Servius explains that Prometheus was so named because he was a man of great foresight (vir prudentissimus), possessing the abstract quality of providentia, the Latin equivalent of Greek promētheia.
Modern scientific linguistics suggests that the name derived from the Proto-Indo-European root that also produces the Vedic pra math, "to steal," hence pramathyu-s, "thief", cognate with "Prometheus", the thief of fire. The Vedic myth of fire's theft by Mātariśvan is an analog to the Greek account. Pramantha was the tool used to create fire.
(see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheus )

If you google "fire-thief" you will almost always end up with results where reference is made to the mythological fire-thief Prometheus.  It is amazing, that when compounding two simple genuine Icelandic words the result exclusively designates something specific from another culture.  Eldþjófur is a nice purely Icelandic alternative of the Greek Prometheus.  Now, the interesting thing about this word is that it's actually constructed like a personal name: Eld- is a prefix found in Eldar, Eldborg, Eldey, Eldjárn and Eldór and -þjófur in Old Icelandic names like Friðþjófur, Geirþjófur, Húnþjófur and Valþjófur. True, the suffix has the original meaning of "servant" but the Íslensk Orðsifjabók mentions: Í einstaka tilvikum kann þjófur 'ránsmaður' að koma við sögu. The name indeed can mean "thief" as well as "servant", but that's even more convenient, because Prometheus was regarded as a "servant" by mankind because he gave them fire but as a thief through the eyes of the gods.  So both meanings of þjófur apply to the character of Prometheus.  In the international terminology the literal equivalent of eldþjófsefni would be pyrokleptium.
2) gervidulmálmur, gervihuliðsmálmur (gervi- (artificial) + dulmálmur, huliðsmálmur (rare-earth))
3) þeifsmálmur (Abbreviated form of prómeþeifsefni or prómeþeifsmálmur . If it is allowed to cut pieces from place-names like Ytterby and use the remains as building-blocks for names like terbium, yttrium and erbium, why would þeifsmálmur (þeifur sounds like Seifur and has the consonantal skeleton of þjófur) be so exaggerated?
4) þeifi (i-shifted last part of Prómeþeifur, a neuter noun). I know this is an extremely bold and eccentric reduction, but this word doesn't exist yet in Icelandic, so their are no connotations. Note that þeifi coincidentially has the same "consonantal lattice" as þjófur (thief, in Old Icelandic also servant).



samarium: samreskjumálmur, semri  The root of the surname Samarski (meaning from the "city of Samara") is samar- to which the international elemental suffix -ium was added.  For the Icelandic construction I decided to Icelandicize Samarski in the same way as names of Russian cities ending in -sk were once nordicized: Smolensk: smáleskja, Polotsk: pallteskja. On the analogy of these constructions, Samarski becomes Samreskju (Samar + -eskja: Samreskja).  The name for the metal is Samreskjumálmur (Samarski-metal).  An even shorter word would be an i-shift of the stem samar-: semri.

europium: samarkelki (closely associated with samrium in nature, from which it was separated: see the figure on: http://www.vanderkrogt.net/elements/rareearths.php 
The root of the name Samarski is Samar (-ski is a slavix suffix meaning "pertaining to" and is equivalent to Icelandic -skur).  In the international name the ending -ium was added to the root Samar-.  Europium is strongly divalent, like calcium and true earth-alkaline elements in it chemical behaviour, which sets it apart from the other rare-earth elements.  Hence the latter element -kelki (calcium, an i-shift from "kalk")

gadolinium:
1) finnmálmur: Gadolinium is the only element that can be linked up with Finland. And this through the person of the famous Finnish element hunter Johan Gadolin. The shortest construction is Finnmálmur.
Some might call it far-fetched.  But if you know that:
- The French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran named gallium after Latin Gallia meaning Gaul, after his native land of France
- Winkler named his discovery germanium in honor of his homeland Germany
- Marie Curie named the first element she isolated, polonium after her homeland Poland
- Karl Klaus chose ruthenium in honor of his birthland Russia and the same goes for Francium
- Danium (old name for hafnium proposed by Niels bohr)
- and still other examples like Francium, Americium, Scandium, ect.


Would it be that far-fetched to call gadolinium, named after the only Finnish scientist in the history of the discovery of the elements, after his homecountry Finland?  Only one single element on the periodic table can be linked up with Finland and that's gadolinium, through the person of Johan Gadolin, and therefore I called it Finnmálmur.
2) eingrýtisjárn (the iron in monazite (= solitary mineral, eingrýti, gadolinium is the only ferromagnetic element apart from iron, cobalt and nickel). Monazite is, along with bästnesite (bestnesgrýti) one of the main sources of gadolinium.).  The latter element járn (iron) refers to the fact that apart from iron, cobalt and nickel, only gadolinium is ferromagnetic at normal temperatures (up to 16°C).

Sunday, January 6, 2013

Evidence for the validity of the use of -blý (lead) as the final part in Icelandic native names of transplumbic elements

The only way to produce native names for transplumbic elements is the use of blý (lead), the heaviest element for which an uncompounded word existed in the Old Icelandic: maríublý (MARILEAD (compare "marigold", polonium), blyfti (blý + loft -lyfti), þórblý (thorium), úteyjablý (uranium) heljarblý (plutonium), nýheimsblý (americium), lafransblý (lawrencium).The following examples show the validity of this approach:

1) The last colour situated near the lower end of the visible spectrum that has an uncompounded name belonging to Icelandic core-vocabulary is blár (blue). The names of the colours or radiation beyond blue were designated by compounds with "blár": dimmfjólublár (indígó) - fjólublár (violet) - útfjólublár or útblár (ultraviolet).

2) Another example of this terminological extrapolation can be found in the formation of modern names of large numerals.  The largest numbers in antiquity, designated by uncompounded names were mille (thousand) in Latin and myriados (ten thousand) in Greek. Terms for larger numbers, magnitudes of thousand were construted from the word "mille": million - bILLion, trILLion, QuadILLion Analoguous to these examples, native Icelandic names of transplumbic elements could be coined by using "blý" (lead) as the final element: maríublý (MARILEAD (like marigold), polonium), þórblý (thorium), heljarblý (hell-lead, plutonium), nýheimsblý (new-world's lead, americium), lafransblý (lawrence's lead, lawrencium)

3) Even in geographical names there's an example to be found: e.g. the name "the Indies" were derived from the Indus River and were applied by the ancient Greeks to most of the regions of Asia that lay further to the east than Persia. The term "Indies" was first used by European geographers to identify geographic regions not only the Indian Subcontinent, but also the islands beyond, although geopgraphically Indonesia has little to with the Indian subcontinent. This is again an example of using the historical name of an outermost region on the map in order to designate later discovered regions even further away. Indland (India) - Indókína (Indochine) - Indonesia (Indónesía, Indeyjar)